欢迎来到杭州绿手指园林绿化有限公司官方网站!

新闻动态

NEWS CENTER

  • 香桂育苗的繁殖及栽培
  • 本站编辑:杭州绿手指园林绿化有限公司发布日期:2018-10-23 11:24 浏览次数:

香桂,属樟科樟属,高20米,胸径50厘米,树皮平滑。小枝、芽、叶柄、叶下面、花总梗花梗均密被淡黄色平优绢柔毛。叶近对生或互生,革质,披针形至椭圆形,长4~11厘米,宽2~4厘米,长渐尖至尾尖,上面光绿,下面黄绿,三出脉在离基1~4毫米处生出,侧脉斜伸至近叶顶,在上面微凹陷,下面凸起。花序长6~9厘米;花淡黄色,长4毫米,花被裂片两面有柔毛。困椭圆形,长7毫米;果托杯状,托缘全缘。香桂产于长江以南各地,西至四川、云南、西藏;生于海拔1000米或2500米(西南)以下。东南亚地区也多有颁。耐荫,喜温暖湿润,要求肥沃土壤,在衡山山谷、山麓与甜槠、水青冈、栓皮水姜木姜子等混生。材质略同天竺桂。香桂既是一种常绿绿化树种,同时又是一种经济树种,适宜栽植范围广,经济效益高。香桂树皮可提取香油,主含桂醛,用于制牙膏及化妆品;枝叶能提取香油称桂叶油,用于仪器工业,有杀菌防腐之效,树皮又呆作药用和食用“桂皮”。由于只利用枝叶,不会造成新的水土流失,是退耕还林工程理想的造林树种之一。现将其某植技术介绍如下,供参考。


Cinnamomum, belonging to Lauraceae, is 20 meters tall, with a diameter of 50 centimeters and a smooth bark. Branchlets, buds, petioles, leaves, flowers, peduncle, peduncle all densely covered with pale yellow, silky pubescence. Leaves subopposite or alternate, leathery, lanceolate to elliptic, 4-11 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, tapering to caudal tip, light green above, yellowish green below, three-veined at 1-4 mm from base, lateral veins obliquely extending to near apex, slightly depressed above, protruding below. Inflorescence 6~9 cm long; flowers yellowish, 4 mm long, villous on both sides of perianth lobes. Ellipsoid, 7 mm long, fruit cupped, cupped, margin entire. Cinnamomum Cassia is produced in the south of the Yangtze River, West to Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet; born at an altitude of 1000 meters or below 2500 meters (southwest). Southeast Asia also has many awards. Shade-tolerant, warm and humid, requiring fertile soil, in the Hengshan valley, foothills and Castanopsis mollissima, Shuiqinggang, Cortex Zingiber and other mixed. The material is slightly different from Cinnamomum cassia. Cinnamomum Cassia is not only an evergreen tree species, but also an economic tree species, suitable for planting a wide range of economic benefits. Cinnamomum cassia bark can be extracted fragrant oil, mainly containing cinnamaldehyde, used in toothpaste and cosmetics; branches and leaves can be extracted fragrant oil called cinnamon leaf oil, used in the instrument industry, has germicidal and antiseptic effect, bark also used as medicinal and edible "cinnamon". It is one of the ideal afforestation tree species for the project of returning farmland to forestry because only the branches and leaves will not cause new soil erosion. Some of its planting techniques are introduced below for reference.




1 栽植香桂的自然条件


1 natural conditions for planting Cinnamomum cassia




1.1 土壤条件


1.1 soil conditions




栽植香桂为适宜的海拔高度为450~1200m,属喀斯特地貌,石灰岩发育而成的黄泥土。一般土壤pH值在5.8以上,有机质6.54%、全氮0.32%、全磷0.046%、全钾3%的条件下生长良好。如土壤过于瘠薄,则会造成植株矮小,生长缓慢,叶片薄小,影响枝叶的含油量。


Cinnamomum cassia L. is a yellow clay soil developed from limestone and belongs to karst landform. Soil pH value is above 5.8, organic matter 6.54%, total nitrogen 0.32%, total phosphorus 0.046%, total potassium 3% under the conditions of good growth. If the soil is too barren, it will cause plant dwarf, slow growth, thin leaves, affecting the oil content of branches and leaves.




1.2 气候条件


1.2 climatic conditions




香桂原产中亚热带湿润季风气候区,年均16.7~18.1℃;无霜期329~340d,>10℃积温5178~5602℃,日照时数1042.4~1152.4h,降雨量为1152.4~1042.4mm。栽植地要求热量高,雨量充足,日照长。


In the humid monsoon climate region of the middle subtropical zone, the average annual temperature is 16.7-18.1, the frost-free period is 329-340 days, the accumulated temperature is 5178-5602, the sunshine time is 1042.4-1152.4 hours, and the rainfall is 1152.4-1042.4 mm. The planting area requires high heat, adequate rainfall and long sunshine.



201803271102131022-lp.jpg

2 育苗技术


2 seedling raising techniques




2.1 种子育苗


2.1 seed seedling raising




种子育苗成活率高,不损伤植株,包装运输方便,用不着量少,便于田间管理,生产上已普遍采用。


Seed breeding has the advantages of high survival rate, no damage to plants, convenient packaging and transportation, less need for quantity, easy field management, and has been widely used in production.




2.1.1 种子处理采摘成熟果实搁置1~2d,搓去果皮,用温水反复搓洗,去掉种子表面的胶质,然后阴干失水15%左右沙藏。播种时在45℃的温水中加入0.5%的高锰酸钾消毒种子,浸泡1h,沥出药液,清洗晾干后,拌适量桐油和草木灰,备用播种。


2.1.1 The seeds were harvested and put aside for 1-2 days. The peel was rubbed off. The gum on the surface of the seeds was removed by rubbing repeatedly with warm water. Then the seeds were dried in the shade and stored in sand about 15% water loss. The seeds were disinfected with 0.5% potassium permanganate in 45 C warm water, soaked for 1 h, leached out the liquid, washed and dried, mixed with tung oil and grass ash, and planted in reserve.




2.1.2 圃地准备育苗地应选择比较平坦、土质深厚、肥沃、石砾少的微酸性土壤。苗床须深耕平整,施足底肥,畦宽1,条播行距10~15cm。播种密度为4万 ~6万粒/667㎡,覆土厚度为种子直径的2倍。


2.1.2 The nursery land should choose the slightly acidic soil which is flat, deep, fertile and less gravel. The seedbed must be deep ploughed and flat, with enough base fertilizer, 1 wide and 10~15cm spacing. The planting density is 40 thousand ~6, ten thousand /667, and the thickness of covering soil is 2 times of seed diameter.




2.1.3 播种时间播种期春、秋两季均可,但以秋播较好。


2.1.3 seeding time can be sowed in spring and autumn in two seasons, but autumn sowing is better.




2.1.4 田间管理播种后要尽量避免表土的干燥。通过合理灌溉使床面保持湿润,防止小苗失水,还可调节地表温度防止日灼危害。播种苗一般要求灌水次数要多,每次灌水量要少。播种育苗地在幼苗出土前要进行除草和松土,一般在灌溉或雨后能操作进行。除去施肥、除草等一般管理外,秋播育苗应在行间插铁芒箕,以减少水分的蒸发提高地表温度;春播育可在行间间作玉米等高秆作物,可起遮荫作用。


2.1.4 field management should be as dry as possible to avoid the drying of topsoil. By rational irrigation, the bed surface can be kept wet, seedlings can be prevented from losing water, and the surface temperature can be adjusted to prevent sunburn. Seeding seedlings generally require more irrigation times and less irrigation. Sowing and nursery seedlings in the seedlings before the soil to weed and loosen, generally in irrigation or rain can be operated. In addition to general management such as fertilization and weeding, the autumn seedling should be interplanted with iron pan to reduce evaporation of water and increase surface temperature. Spring sowing can be intercropped with maize and other high-stalk crops, which can play a shading role.




2.2 扦插育苗


2.2 cutting seedlings




扦插育苗成活率较低,一般在26%左右。扦插时间以2、3月好。选择健壮、节间短和无病虫害的植株的中下部2~3年生枝条中部为插条,长度15~20cm。扦插行距16~17cm,株距10cm,扦插密度可达4万株/667㎡。夏季注意遮荫是提高扦插成活率的关键。扦插苗的生根,发芽都有需要较大水量,特别是在刚开始展叶而下面尚未完全生根(即“假活”)这一阶段,叶面蒸腾量大,土壤水分的供产量少,一时断水就将造成死亡。


The survival rate of cuttage seedlings is relatively low, generally around 26%. Cutting time is good in 2 and March. The middle and lower 2-3-year-old branches of robust, short internodes and insect-free plants were selected as cuttings, and the length was 15-20 cm. Cutting distance 16~17cm, spacing 10cm, cutting density can reach 40 thousand plants /667. Summer shading is the key to increase cuttage survival rate. Cutting seedlings need more water for rooting and sprouting, especially in the stage when the leaves are just beginning to spread and the roots are not yet fully formed (i.e. "false living"), the transpiration of the leaves is large, the supply of soil water is small, and the water shortage will cause death.




2.3 分蘖育苗


2.3 tillering seedling raising




香桂根部的萌蘖力很强,一般在晚秋和早春气温不很高时进行分蘖繁殖育苗。由于栽植时根系被截断,苗木内部的水分供应出现不平衡现象,必须加强供水才能解决。在分株移植后应连续灌水3~4次,而且灌水量要大些,间隔时间也不能为长。


The roots of Cinnamomum Cassia have strong tillering ability. Generally, tillering propagation is carried out in late autumn and early spring when the temperature is not high. Due to the truncation of roots during planting, the imbalance of water supply in seedlings must be strengthened to solve the problem. 3~4 should be continuously irrigated after the ramet transplant, and the irrigation volume should be larger and the interval time should not be longer.


——    没有更多了    ——